In the early days of the World Wide Web, around the mid-1990s, websites were static, composed primarily of HTML for structure and CSS for styling. The experience was akin to reading a book; you could consume information, but the interaction was minimal. The web was a fantastic resource for information, but it felt more like a library than an interactive playground.
HTML and CSS could create and style elements but couldn’t respond to user interactions in real-time. This meant that elements like dropdown menus, interactive forms, sliders, and animations — things users often take for granted today — were impossible to implement. Every time a user submitted a form, a full page refresh was required, even for the most minor of data submissions. Interacting with a webpage was a slow and arduous process, as every interaction required a server round trip and a page refresh.